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./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it is a free/libre software that builds native packages for several Linux distributions from DRM-free installers for a collection of commercial games. These packages can then be installed using the standard distribution-provided tools (APT, pacman, emerge, etc.).
A more complete description of ./play.it has already been posted in linux_gaming a couple months ago: ./play.it, an easy way to install commercial games on GNU/Linux
It's already been one year since version 2.11 was released, in January 2019. We will only briefly review the changelog of version 2.12 and focus on the different points of ./play.it that kept us busy during all this time, and of which coding was only a small part.

What’s new with 2.12?

Though not the focus of this article, it would be a pity not to present all the added features of this brand new version. ;)
Compared to the usual updates, 2.12 is a major one, especially since for two years, we slowed down the addition of new features. Some patches took dust since the end of 2018 before finally be integrated in this update!
The list of changes for this 2.12 release can be found on our forge. Here is a full copy for convenience:

Development migration

History

As many free/libre projects, ./play.it development started on some random sector of a creaking hard drive, and unsurprisingly, a whole part of its history (everything predating version 1.13.15 released on Mars 30th, 2016) disappeared into the limbs because some unwise operation destroyed the only copy of the repository… Lesson learned, what's not shared don't stay long, and so was born the first public Git repository of the project. The easing of collaborative work was only accidentally achieved by this quest for eternity, but wasn't the original motivation for making the repository publicly available.
Following this decision, ./play.it source code has been hosted successively by many shared forge platforms:

Dedicated forge

As development progressed, ./play.it began to increase its need for resources, dividing its code into several repositories to improve the workflow of the different aspects of the projects, adding continuous integration tests and their constraints, etc. A furious desire to understand the nooks and crannies behind a forge platform was the last deciding factor towards hosting a dedicated forge.
So it happened, we deployed a forge platform on a dedicated server, hugely benefiting from the tremendous work achieved by the GitLab's package Debian Maintainers team. In return, we tried to contribute our findings in improving this software packaging.
That was not expected, but this migration happened just a little time before the announcement “Déframasoftisons Internet !” (French article) about the planned end of Framagit.
This dedicated instance used to be hosted on a VPS rented from Digital Ocean until the second half of July 2020, and since then has been moved to another VPS, rented from Hetzner. The specifications are similar, as well as the service, but thanks to this migration our hosting costs have been cut in half. Keeping in mind that this is paid by a single person, so any little donation helps a lot on this front. ;)
To the surprise of our system administrator, this last migration took only a couple hours with no service interruption reported by our users.

Forge access

This new forge can be found at forge.dotslashplay.it. Registrations are open to the public, but we ask you to not abuse this, the main restriction being that we do not wish to host projects unrelated to ./play.it. Of course exceptions are made for our active contributors, who are allowed to host some personal projects there.
So, if you wish to use this forge to host your own work, you first need to make some significant contributions to ./play.it.

API

The collection of supported games growing endlessly, we have started the development of a public API allowing access to lots of information related to ./play.it.
This API, which is not yet stabilized, is simply an interface to a versioned database containing all the ./play.it scripts, handled archives, games installable through the project. Relations are, of course, handled between those items, enabling its use for requests like : « What packages are required on my system to install Cæsar Ⅲ ? » or « What are the free (as in beer) games handled via DOSBox ? ».
Originally developed as support for the new, in-development, Web site (we'll talk about it later on), this API should facilitate the development of tools around ./play.it. For example, it'll be useful for whomever would like to build a complete video game handling software (downloading, installation, starting, etc.) using ./play.it as one of its building bricks.
For those curious about the technical side, it's an API based on Lumeneffectuant that makes requests on a MariaDB database, all self-hosted on a Debian Sid. Not only is the code of the API versioned on our forge, but also the structure and content of the databases, which will allow those who desired it to install a local version easily.

New website

Based on the aforementioned API, a new website is under development and will replace our current website based on DokuWiki.
Indeed, if the lack of database and the plain text files structure of DokuWiki seemed at first attractive, as ./play.it supported only a handful of games (link in French), this feature became more inconvenient as the library of ./play.it supported games grew.
We shall make an in-depth presentation of this website for the 2.13 release of ./play.it, but a public demo of the development version from our forge is already available.
If you feel like providing an helping hand on this task, some priority tasks have been identified to allow opening a new Web site able to replace the current one. And for those interested in technical details, this web Site was developed in PHP using the framework Laravel. The current in-development version is hosted for now on the same Debian Sid than the API.

GUI

A regular comment that is done about the project is that, if the purpose is to make installing games accessible to everyone without technical skills, having to run scripts in the terminal remains somewhat intimidating. Our answer until now has been that while the project itself doesn't aim to providing a graphical interface (KISS principle "Keep it simple, stupid"), still and always), but that it would be relatively easy to, later on, develop a graphical front-end to it.
Well, it happens that is now reality. Around the time of our latest publication, one of our contributors, using the API we just talked about, developed a small prototype that is usable enough to warrant a little shout out. :-)
In practice, it is some small Python 3 code (an HCI completely in POSIX shell is for a later date :-°), using GTK 3 (and still a VTE terminal to display the commands issued, but the user shouldn't have to input anything in it, except perhaps the root password to install some packages). This allowed to verify that, as we used to say, it would be relatively easy, since a script of less than 500 lines of code (written quickly over a week-end) was enough to do the job !
Of course, this graphical interface project stays independent from the main project, and is maintained in a specific repository. It seems interesting to us to promote it in order to ease the use of ./play.it, but this doesn't prevent any other similar projects to be born, for example using a different language or graphical toolkit (we, globally, don't have any particular affinity towards Python or GTK).
The use of this HCI needs three steps : first, a list of available games is displayed, coming directly from our API. You just need to select in the list (optionally using the search bar) the game you want to install. Then it switches to a second display, which list the required files. If several alternatives are available, the user can select the one he wants to use. All those files must be in the same directory, the address bar on the top enabling to select which one to use (click on the open button on the top opens a filesystem navigation window). Once all those files available (if they can be downloaded, the software will do it automatically), you can move ahead to the third step, which is just watching ./play.it do its job :-) Once done, a simple click on the button on the bottom will run the game (even if, from this step, the game is fully integrated on your system as usual, you no longer need this tool to run it).
To download potentially missing files, the HCI will use, depending on what's available on the system, either wget, curl or aria2c (this last one also handling torrents), of which the output will be displayed in the terminal of the third phase, just before running the scripts. For privilege escalation to install packages, sudo will be used preferentially if available (with the option to use a third-party application for password input, if the corresponding environment variable is set, which is more user-friendly), else su will be used.
Of course, any suggestion for an improvement will be received with pleasure.

New games

Of course, such an announcement would not be complete without a list of the games that got added to our collection since the 2.11 release… So here you go:
If your favourite game is not supported by ./play.it yet, you should ask for it in the dedicated tracker on our forge. The only requirement to be a valid request is that there exists a version of the game that is not burdened by DRM.

What’s next?

Our team being inexhaustible, work on the future 2.13 version has already begun…
A few major objectives of this next version are :
If your desired features aren't on this list, don't hesitate to signal it us, in the comments of this news release. ;)

Links

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Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Cryptosoft Review 2020-Is it a Scam?

Most f the reviews we tend to have come back across reveal that the Cryptp soft platform is easy to
Their client service is very efficient. We did a live check and confirmed that they respond at intervals a moment. Moreover, they are available 24/7.
The Cryptp soft app is secure. They need all the mandatory measures in place to make sure data privacy.
The Cryptp soft System is considered by several among the most effective robots within the market nowadays. We have a tendency to realize this robot to perform virtually the same with Bitcoin Rush, another top bitcoin robot. Read the review of Bitcoin Rush for more data?
Cryptp soft registration method is straightforward, easy, and secure. You only want but 10 minutes to form an account and begin trading. Cryptp soft is a absolutely auto bot and is so accessible to everyone.

https://preview.redd.it/giu6kclgfnn51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f605d84ba2174f831ca825dbaffddf061b3a55b5
You do not want to perceive trading lingo to use Immediate Edge. The following steps can get you started with this robot.
STEP ONE: Fill the Signup type

Visit the Cryptp soft home page and register your name, phone number, and email in the provided kind. You will be asked to verify your phone variety via a text code and email through a link. CryptoVibes will ascertain that the Cryptp soft registration process is secure.

Their web site is SSL secured to confirm that hackers cannot steal personal information submitted through it. Cryptp soft cyber safety policy states that they're GDPR adherent. This suggests that they handle your knowledge with strict privacy.
STEP TWO: Get matched with a broker

The Cryptp soft Software then matches you with one in every of their partner brokers. The role of the broker is to receive deposits and facilitate transactions. We have a tendency to have determined that Cryptp soft only partners with regulated brokers.

With a regulated broker, they guarantee that your cash is safe. Reputable regulators such as the FCA, FSB, ASIC, and CySEC need brokers to segregate deposits and submit periodic reports on deposit usage.
You wold like a deposit of a minimum of $250 to trade with Immediate Edge. Do not confuse this quantity with the value of the robot. Cryptp soft does not need any license fee. The house owners of this robot build money by charging a small commission on the profits generated through the app
Deposits with Cryptp soft should be created through Wire Transfer, Visa, and MasterCard. It takes a few seconds for a deposit to reflect in an exceedingly trader’s account. Cryptp soft does not charge any deposit fees.
The Cryptp soft does provide a demo account to help traders familiarize themselves with its web-trader. CryptoVibes recommends that you are doing demo trading before going to live to trade. Please note that the demo is for demonstrative purposes solely.
The results you receive on the platform are primarily based on historical information and could therefore not mirror what you'll get in live trading.
The Cryptp soft live trader comes with features to help you outline the amount of risk you are willing to require per trade. You wish to go through the demo account to familiarize with these features. As mentioned severally in this review, you do not want specialized skills to use this robot.
Live trading with Cryptp soft involves determining the quantity of capital you plan to risk per trade and clicking the live button. Scan our review of Bitcoin Trader for one more straightforward to use the robot.
*Remember all trading risks and you shouldn’t risk more then you'll be able to afford to lose.
How to get the most out of Cryptp soft App
We have identified the following tips as paramount in guaranteeing that you make the most of Immediate Edge.
Begin with a deposit of $250 – Given the level of risk involved in trading with Immediate Edge, you should start with a tiny investment.
Follow crypto market news – You need to determine the type of reports that drives volatility high and capitalize on them. Cryptp soft claims to form the foremost profits throughout high market volatility.
Trade for eight hours per day – In keeping with Immediate Edge, trading for at least eight hours per day can help maximize profits. Cryptp soft is entirely auto, and hence you'll be able to leave the robot running as you continue together with your daily errands. You are doing not want more than twenty minutes per day to observe your account.
Close trading sessions at the tip of the day – Leaving open positions overnight is doubtless to translate to losses since the markets can change considerably overnight. It is better to shut sessions even if in the negative and start trading again the subsequent day. With a correct risk management strategy, there is no would like to fret concerning periodic losses.
Following our review we tend to realize Cryptp soft to be legit. But, traders ought to take additional caution, provided that this bot comes at a degree of risk. Whereas the app claims it's potential to form profits of up to 50percent per day, you'll be able to additionally lose the complete deposit inside seconds. This is often not sudden for a high-frequency trading robot.
We recommend that you just apply the required risk management measures. As a rule of thumb don't risk more than 10percent of your trading capital per trade. Also, never trade with an amount you cannot afford to lose. It is prudent to start small and add cash as you get conversant with the various features on the platform.
Recently, a brand new trading software was added to the bitcoin investment trade. This software is termed Cryptp soft and it is allegedly created by a corporation or organization called the International Council for Bitcoin.
There is additionally a letter out there on their web site that has been signed by someone named David. This person claims to own earned over 1,000,000 as a results of investing in bitcoins. What’s very shocking concerning this letter is that David claims to have earned that huge quantity in just one trade. If we have a tendency to place it in simple words, David became a millionaire overnight.
We tend to highly doubt that a trading system that has been launched recently will have such potential. To verify the main points of this software and to determine its legitimacy, we have a tendency to conducted our own research and investigation.
Cryptp soft is a bitcoin trading software that’s meant to assist newbie traders get involved in Cryptocurrency trading with less risk than ancient investment opportunities. Cryptp soft software was created by The International Council For Bitcoin who is PRO Bitcoin trader Group behind the Cryptp soft software. Notice out all concerning Cryptp soft software by The International Council For Bitcoin.
Cryptp soft Software may be a nice development by a famous, well established and experienced bitcoin trader Investors with a viewpoint to enable traders to perform different tasks with ease and convenience.

https://preview.redd.it/uuh85yghfnn51.png?width=1238&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0558e6e123114b6624d5a724b3b9b5983e717e1
Cryptp soft Software is essentially a Binary choices trading software that is designed to assist traders win and predict the Binary options trend of their respective choices. Cryptp soft APP works as a code to urge financial success, shows traders how they'll make money on-line, helps them to find different ways in which to induce huge returns on their investment. The Cryptp soft Trading Software additionally provides analyses of Market conditions so that traders will recognize what ought to be their next step. Cryptp soft System gives secret cryptocurrency ways that ultimately help binary traders to create thousands of greenbacks solely for some bucks.
Several individuals can say that Cryptocurrency Trading may be a risky business and tend to remain faraway from it. But from my expertise, high volatility means HIGH RETURN OF INVESTMENT in Crypto Market. But this can be where the Cryptp soft comes into play, the mathematical algorithm used by Cryptp soft Software takes the guesswork out choosing a winning profitable trade. You don’t must be an expert. Like I said earlier, I actually have personally tested the Cryptp soft and found the success rate is about ninety sevenpercent. I don’t apprehend concerning you, but a ninety seven% probability of earning a profitable trade is TERRIBLY GOOD! I’ve never come across something like this trading software before. Keep reading, below are my Cryptp soft results for the past week or so…
Watch over the Shoulder of a Professional Each Day and you'll be able to learn as you trade.
Averaging 97% Winning Weeks With Cryptp soft which suggests that more potential profits for you
Cryptp soft Software Are Fully Transparent
No previous experience with binary choices trading required
Web-based mostly, no need for downloads, additionally works on phones, tablets
You'll be able to Even Watch Cryptp soft Signals From Your Phone (iPhone Users — Photon Browser)
If you are ready to begin making cash online with an on the spot edge, there has never been a better chance than currently. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours trying for the next Trading Method Secrets, never being able to urge centered, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not creating cash on-line, you ought to probably leave this page right now and get back to that Cryptp soft System strategy
Cryptp soft bot could be a new cryptocurrency trading invention that comes with options that create this software stand out among others. It is conjointly an automatic trading platform that uses a smart program algorithm to detect favorable trading opportunities. It acts on its own or waits for a prompt command from the user depending on the software’s settings. But what makes this software unique and a favorite to individuals is what we have a tendency to shall unveil in this review.
There have been lots of unverified claims of how totally different cryptocurrency software have helped several people to make massive profits leading to Scam individuals. However, it's pertinent for cryptocurrency traders to verify if a particular trading software may be a scam or legit, which is also ?
After subjecting the features of the Cryptp soft bot software to a series of tests, the software isn't a scam however legit. The Cryptp soft bot is believed to have successful rate of 85%, that is a lot of than the 80percent benchmark for average software. The Cryptp soft bot has helped cryptocurrency traders to make sensible profits, which has been documented as testimonies on the software’s website.
Trading on the platform is straightforward and might not require experience. We had to verify the simplicity of the software, and we tend to discovered that the software is easy to navigate. The demo trading feature of the software makes it potential for brand new users to hold out trading activities in an exceedingly simulated atmosphere while not having to risk their investment. This any gives credence to the legitimacy of the software because it ensures that new users get accustomed to the features of the software before continuing to measure to trade
As earlier stated, the Cryptp soft bot could be a high-tech program software that comes with exceptional options that makes it among the simplest cryptocurrency trading software in the blockchain market. The outstanding features of the Cryptp soft bot embody the subsequent:
https://www.cryptoerapro.com/cryptosoft/

http://www.cryptoerapro.com/

https://twitter.com/cryptoerapro

https://www.instagram.com/cryptoerapro/

https://www.pinterest.co.uk/cryptoerapro/
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

binary options trading

The vfxAlert software provides a full range of analytical tools online, a convenient interface for working in the broker’s trading platform. In one working window, we show the most necessary data in order to correctly assess the situation on the market. The vfxAlert software includes direct binary signals, online charts, trend indicator, market news, the ability to work with any broker. Also for our subscribers, we offer services for sending signals to telegram messenger and additional analytical and statistical information. You can use binary options signals online, in a browser window, without downloading the vfxAlert application.
https://vfxalert.com/en?&utm_source=links
submitted by binaryoptionstra to u/binaryoptionstra [link] [comments]

LCD Arduino project Display Heart Rate

LCD Arduino project brief introduction
Some time ago, I found a heart rate sensor module MAX30100 in shopping online. This module can collect blood oxygen and heart rate data of users, which is also simple and convenient to use.
According to the data, I found that there are libraries of MAX30100 in the Arduino library files. That is to say, if I use the communication between LCD Arduino and MAX30100, I can directly call the Arduino library files without having to rewrite the driver files. This is a good thing, so I bought the module of MAX30100.
I decided to use Arduino to verify the heart rate and blood oxygen collection function of MAX30100. With STONE TFT LCD screen for monitoring blood pressure.
Note: this module by default only with 3.3 V level MCU communications, because it defaults to using IIC pin pull up the resistance of 4.7 K to 1.8 V, so there is no communication with the Arduino by default, if you want to commune with the Arduino and need two 4.7 K of the IIC pin pull-up resistor connected to the VIN pin, these contents will be introduced in the back of the chapter.

Functional assignments

Before starting this project, I thought about some simple features:
• Heart rate data and blood oxygen data were collected
• Heart rate and blood oxygen data are displayed through an LCD screen
These are the only two features, but if we want to implement it, we need to do more thinking:
• What master MCU is used?
• What kind of LCD display?
As we mentioned earlier, we use Arduino for the MCU, but this is an LCD Arduino project, so we need to choose the appropriate LCD display module. I plan to use the LCD display screen with a serial port. I have a STONE STVI070WT-01 displayer here, but if Arduino needs to communicate with it, MAX3232 is needed to do the level conversion.
Then the basic electronic materials are determined as follows:
  1. Arduino Mini Pro development board
  2. MAX30100 heart rate and blood oxygen sensor module
  3. STONE STVI070WT-01 LCD serial port display module
  4. MAX3232 module

Hardware Introduction

MAX30100

The MAX30100 is an integrated pulse oximetry and heart rate monitor sensor solution. It combines two LEDs, a photodetector, optimized optics, and low-noise analog signal processing to detect pulse oximetry and heart-rate signals. The MAX30100 operates from 1.8V and 3.3V power supplies and can be powered down through software with negligible standby current, permitting the power supply to remain connected at all times.

Applications

● Wearable Devices
● Fitness Assistant Devices
● Medical Monitoring Devices

Benefits and Features

1、Complete Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate SensorSolution Simplifies Design
• Integrated LEDs, Photo Sensor, and high-Performance Analog Front -End
• Tiny 5.6mm x 2.8mm x 1.2mm 14-Pin OpticallyEnhanced System-in-Package
2、Ultra-Low-Power Operation Increases Battery Life for wearable Devices
• Programmable Sample Rate and LED Current for Power Savings
• Ultra-Low Shutdown Current (0.7µA, typ)
3、Advanced Functionality Improves Measurement Performance
• High SNR Provides Robust Motion Artifact Resilience
• Integrated Ambient Light Cancellation
• High Sample Rate Capability
• Fast Data Output Capability

Detection Principle


https://preview.redd.it/254ou0pq20a51.jpg?width=817&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2d3287e1973b328412e14c6e56f74e6f5975153e
Just press your finger against the sensor to estimate pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse (equivalent to heartbeat).
The pulse oximeter (oximeter) is a mini-spectrometer that USES the principles of different red cell absorption spectra to analyze the oxygen saturation of the blood. This real-time and rapid measurement method is also widely used in many clinical references.
I will not introduce the MAX30100 too much, because these materials are available on the Internet. Interested friends can look up the information of this heart rate test module on the Internet, and have a deeper understanding of its detection principle.

Introduction to the STVI070WT-01 displayer

In this project, I will use the STONE STVI070WT-01 to display the heart rate and blood oxygen data.
The driver chip has been integrated inside the display screen, and there is software for users to use. Users only need to add buttons, text boxes, and other logic through the designed UI pictures, and then generate configuration files and download them into the display screen to run.
The display of STVI070WT-01 communicates with MCU through the UART RS232 signal, which means that we need to add a MAX3232 chip to convert the RS232 signal into a TTL signal so that we can communicate with Arduino MCU.

https://preview.redd.it/kyyv3hou20a51.jpg?width=749&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=512b7285eb763e518a85d0b172dabc08b15cab6a
If you are not sure how to use the MAX3232, please refer to the following pictures:

https://preview.redd.it/5laiqsxw20a51.jpg?width=653&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=126fb57d5171d942046277896e1552995df0ce13
If you think the level conversion is too troublesome, you can choose other types of displayers of STONE Tech, some of which can directly output uart-TTL signal.
The official website has detailed information and introduction:
https://www.stoneitech.com/
If you need video tutorials and tutorials to use, you can also find it on the official website.

https://preview.redd.it/0rkfwxk530a51.jpg?width=867&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=32803906927fff48bb8fbc1b0a7c073cfe54c5e5

Development steps

Three steps of STONE display screen development:
• Design the display logic and button logic with STONE TOOL software, and download the design file to the display module.
• MCU communicates with the STONE LCD display module through the serial port.
• With the data obtained in step 2, the MCU does other actions.

STONE TOOL software installation

Download the latest version of the STONE TOOL software (currently TOOL2019) from the website, and install it.
After the software is installed, the following interface will be opened:

https://preview.redd.it/evuct2w630a51.jpg?width=848&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=201d40fdb81e2c4fd229992daf15501f2cb177a0
Click the "File" button in the upper left corner to create a new project, which we will discuss later.

LCD Arduino

Arduino is an open-source electronic prototype platform that is easy to use and easy to use. It includes the hardware part (various development boards that conform to the Arduino specification) and the software part (Arduino IDE and related development kits).
The hardware part (or development board) consists of a microcontroller (MCU), Flash memory (Flash), and a set of universal input/output interfaces (GPIO), which you can think of as a microcomputer motherboard.
The software part is mainly composed of Arduino IDE on PC, related board-level support package (BSP) and rich third-party function library. With the Arduino IDE, you can easily download the BSP associated with your development board and the libraries you need to write your programs.
Arduino is an open-source platform. So far, there have been many models and many derived controllers, including Arduino Uno, Arduino Nano, Arduino Yun and so on. In addition, the Arduino IDE now not only supports the Arduino series development boards but also adds support for popular development boards such as Intel Galileo and NodeMCU by introducing BSP.
Arduino senses the environment through a variety of sensors, controlling lights, motors and other devices to feedback and influence the environment. The microcontroller on the board can be programmed with an Arduino programming language, compiled into binaries, and burned into the microcontroller. Programming for Arduino is implemented with the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino-based projects can contain Arduino only, as well as Arduino and other software running on PC, and they communicate with each other (such as Flash, Processing, MaxMSP).

HMI for Arduino serial display TFT LCD project development environment

The Arduino development environment is the Arduino IDE, which can be downloaded from the Internet.
Log into the official website of Arduino and download the software
https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software?setlang=cn
After installing the Arduino IDE, the following interface will appear when you open the software:

https://preview.redd.it/2ajmkke830a51.jpg?width=567&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=56dc9dd01c98b231c782ef94d24a9f620c4897b3
The Arduino IDE creates two functions by default: the setup function and the loop function.
There are many Arduino introductions on the Internet. If you don't understand something, you can go to the Internet to find it.

LCD Arduino Project implementation process

hardware connection

To ensure that the next step in writing code goes smoothly, we must first determine the reliability of the hardware connection.
Only four pieces of hardware were used in this project:
  1. Arduino Mini pro-development board
  2. STONE STVI070WT-01 TFT-LCD display screen
  3. MAX30100 heart rate and blood oxygen sensor
  4. MAX3232 (rs232-> TTL)
The Arduino Mini Pro development board and STVI070WT-01 TFT-LCD display screen are connected through UART, which requires level conversion through MAX3232, and then the Arduino Mini Pro development board and MAX30100 module are connected through IIC interface. After thinking clearly, we can draw the following wiring picture:

https://preview.redd.it/w2e5c9ha30a51.jpg?width=769&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=95129db838d6c358e986c88a4d1348f4783cd0ab
https://preview.redd.it/eom4wiia30a51.jpg?width=1091&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ff56c3afaf063d7785a5b85ba283532be0dd896e
Make sure there are no errors in the hardware connection and proceed to the next step.

STONE TFT LCD user interface design

First of all, we need to design a UI display image, which can be designed by PhotoShop or other image design tools. After designing the UI display image, save the image in JPG format.
Open the software STONE TOOL 2019 and create a new project:

https://preview.redd.it/sqjii2mc30a51.jpg?width=1004&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=12f0a87d6c2ca8decaff241d5a0b50a3a1aece89
https://preview.redd.it/4ta8cdlc30a51.jpg?width=871&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b31ac5e612a2c809e29f63974a04ba25bff83788
Remove the image that was loaded by default in the new project, and add the UI image that we designed.
Add the text display component, design the display digit and decimal point, get the storage location of the text display component in the displayer.
The effect is as follows:

https://preview.redd.it/2mfqapoe30a51.jpg?width=1335&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=aacfa0fde88defacd127ea9d9d27ab006ab618dd
Text display component address:
• Connection sta : 0x0008
• Heart rate : 0x0001
• Blood oxygen : 0x0005
The main contents of the UI interface are as follows:
• Connection status
• Heart rate display
• Blood oxygen showed

Generate configuration file

Once the UI design is complete, the configuration file can be generated and downloaded to the STVI070WT-01 displaye.

First, perform step 1, then insert the USB flash drive into the computer, and the disk symbol will be displayed. Then click "Download to u-disk" to Download the configuration file to the USB flash drive, and then insert the USB flash drive into STVI070WT-01 to complete the upgrade.

MAX30100

MAX30100 communicates via IIC. Its working principle is that the ADC value of heart rate can be obtained through infrared led irradiation. The MAX30100 register can be divided into five categories: state register, FIFO, control register, temperature register, and ID register. The temperature register reads the temperature value of the chip to correct the deviation caused by the temperature. The ID register can read the chip's ID number.

https://preview.redd.it/221fq8vg30a51.jpg?width=848&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=43e93284ac35cf1944a77d79ff9a2f662e540c7e

MAX30100 is connected with the Arduino Mini Pro development board through the IIC communication interface. Because there are ready-made MAX30100 library files in the Arduino IDE, we can read the heart rate and blood oxygen data without studying the registers of MAX30100.
For those who are interested in exploring the MAX30100 register, see the MAX30100 Datasheet.

Modify the MAX30100 IIC pull-up resistor

It should be noted that the 4.7k pull-up resistance of the IIC pin of MAX30100 module is connected to 1.8v, which is not a problem in theory. However, the communication logic level of the Arduino IIC pin is 5V, so it cannot communicate with Arduino without changing the hardware of the MAX30100 module.Direct communication is possible if the MCU is STM32 or another 3.3v logic level MCU.
Therefore, the following changes need to be made:

https://preview.redd.it/jti57usl30a51.jpg?width=521&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c56b1b1a8294d60a8f9e931e411305f68c5c5559
Remove the three 4.7k resistors marked in the picture with an electric soldering iron. Then weld two resistors of 4.7k at the pins of SDA and SCL to VIN, so that we can communicate with Arduino.

Arduino serial display LCD

Open the Arduino IDE and find the following buttons:

https://preview.redd.it/990d3bdp30a51.jpg?width=853&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=24136c385601b69d5afc67842358b102373277ef
Search for "MAX30100" to find two libraries for MAX30100, then click download and install.

https://preview.redd.it/4n167pbv30a51.jpg?width=933&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cef50833667bae3f30ac94f5a48b43795b779845
After the installation, you can find the Demo of MAX30100 in the LIB library folder of LCD Arduino:

https://preview.redd.it/rn05xgvw30a51.jpg?width=911&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3709bc7c5be36ebdd14c01cb0b7c1933953425b0
Double-click the file to open it.

https://preview.redd.it/q6fqylky30a51.jpg?width=819&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8073917be374a72bef2977b4b11ccb2b56fa944e
This Demo can be directly tested. If the hardware connection is ok, you can download the code compilation into the Arduino development board and see the data of MAX30100 in the serial debugging tool.
The complete code is as follows: /*
Arduino-MAX30100 oximetry / heart rate integrated sensor library
Copyright (C) 2016 OXullo Intersecans
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see .
*/
#include
#include "MAX30100_PulseOximeter.h"
#define REPORTING_PERIOD_MS 1000
// PulseOximeter is the higher level interface to the sensor
// it offers:
// * beat detection reporting
// * heart rate calculation
// * SpO2 (oxidation level) calculation
PulseOximeter pox;
uint32_t tsLastReport = 0;
// Callback (registered below) fired when a pulse is detected
void onBeatDetected()
{
Serial.println("Beat!");
}
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(115200);
Serial.print("Initializing pulse oximeter..");
// Initialize the PulseOximeter instance
// Failures are generally due to an improper I2C wiring, missing power supply
// or wrong target chip
if (!pox.begin()) {
Serial.println("FAILED");
for(;;);
} else {
Serial.println("SUCCESS");
}
// The default current for the IR LED is 50mA and it could be changed
// by uncommenting the following line. Check MAX30100_Registers.h for all the
// available options.
// pox.setIRLedCurrent(MAX30100_LED_CURR_7_6MA);
// Register a callback for the beat detection
pox.setOnBeatDetectedCallback(onBeatDetected);
}
void loop()
{
// Make sure to call update as fast as possible
pox.update();
// Asynchronously dump heart rate and oxidation levels to the serial
// For both, a value of 0 means "invalid"
if (millis() - tsLastReport > REPORTING_PERIOD_MS) {
Serial.print("Heart rate:");
Serial.print(pox.getHeartRate());
Serial.print("bpm / SpO2:");
Serial.print(pox.getSpO2());
Serial.println("%");
tsLastReport = millis();
}
}
📷
This code is very simple, I believe you can understand it at a glance. I have to say that the modular programming of Arduino is very convenient, and I don't even need to understand how the driver code of Uart and IIC is implemented.
Of course, the above code is an official Demo, and I still need to make some changes to display the data to STONE's displayer.

Display data to the STONE display through Arduino LCD

First, we need to get the address of the component that displays the heart rate and blood oxygen data in STONE's displayer:
In my project, the address is as follows:
Heart rate display component address: 0x0001
Address of blood oxygen display module: 0x0005
Sensor connection status address: 0x0008
If you need to change the display content in the corresponding space, you can change the display content by sending data to the corresponding address of the display screen through the serial port of Arduino.
The modified code is as follows:
/*
Arduino-MAX30100 oximetry / heart rate integrated sensor library
Copyright (C) 2016 OXullo Intersecans
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see .
*/
#include
#include "MAX30100_PulseOximeter.h"
#define REPORTING_PERIOD_MS 1000
#define Heart_dis_addr 0x01
#define Sop2_dis_addr 0x05
#define connect_sta_addr 0x08
unsigned char heart_rate_send[8]= {0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82,\
0x00, Heart_dis_addr, 0x00, 0x00};
unsigned char Sop2_send[8]= {0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82, 0x00, \
Sop2_dis_addr, 0x00, 0x00};
unsigned char connect_sta_send[8]={0xA5, 0x5A, 0x05, 0x82, 0x00, \
connect_sta_addr,0x00, 0x00};
// PulseOximeter is the higher level interface to the sensor
// it offers:
// * beat detection reporting
// * heart rate calculation
// * SpO2 (oxidation level) calculation
PulseOximeter pox;
uint32_t tsLastReport = 0;
// Callback (registered below) fired when a pulse is detected
void onBeatDetected()
{
// Serial.println("Beat!");
}
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(115200);
// Serial.print("Initializing pulse oximeter..");
// Initialize the PulseOximeter instance
// Failures are generally due to an improper I2C wiring, missing power supply
// or wrong target chip
if (!pox.begin()) {
// Serial.println("FAILED");
// connect_sta_send[7]=0x00;
// Serial.write(connect_sta_send,8);
for(;;);
} else {
connect_sta_send[7]=0x01;
Serial.write(connect_sta_send,8);
// Serial.println("SUCCESS");
}
// The default current for the IR LED is 50mA and it could be changed
// by uncommenting the following line. Check MAX30100_Registers.h for all the
// available options.
pox.setIRLedCurrent(MAX30100_LED_CURR_7_6MA);
// Register a callback for the beat detection
pox.setOnBeatDetectedCallback(onBeatDetected);
}
void loop()
{
// Make sure to call update as fast as possible
pox.update();
// Asynchronously dump heart rate and oxidation levels to the serial
// For both, a value of 0 means "invalid"
if (millis() - tsLastReport > REPORTING_PERIOD_MS) {
// Serial.print("Heart rate:");
// Serial.print(pox.getHeartRate());
// Serial.print("bpm / SpO2:");
// Serial.print(pox.getSpO2());
// Serial.println("%");
heart_rate_send[7]=(uint32_t)pox.getHeartRate();
Serial.write(heart_rate_send,8);
Sop2_send[7]=pox.getSpO2();
Serial.write(Sop2_send,8);
tsLastReport = millis();
}
}
Compile the code, download it to the Arduino serial display LCD development board, and you're ready to start testing.
We can see that when the fingers leave the MAX30100, the heart rate and blood oxygen display 0. Place your finger on the MAX30100 collector to see your heart rate and blood oxygen levels in real-time.

LCD Arduino project effect can be seen in the following picture:


https://preview.redd.it/k9u0jtg040a51.jpg?width=510&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1e9994109a072807a802eb1179b874f727aeff5a
https://preview.redd.it/0ow2lfg040a51.jpg?width=576&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b0f5f6ac073894c8b0c033549fce79fac1c90bc3
submitted by Tamesliu to arduino [link] [comments]

MAME 0.216

MAME 0.216

With the end of November in sight, it’s time to check out MAME 0.216! We’ve addressed the reported issues with last month’s bgfx update, and made a whole lot of little improvements to MAME’s internal user interface. In particular, setting up controls should be easier, and several issues affecting macOS users with non-English number format settings have been fixed. Some of the issues caused bad settings to be written to INI files. If you still don’t see the filter list panel on the system selection menu, try removing the ui.ini file.
This month, we’re able to present two unreleased 1970s prototypes from Italian developer Model Racing: their internal code names are Cane and Orbite. With the assistance of former Model Racing employees, the source code was extracted from the original disks. These games are incomplete, but they provide a unique look into early CPU-based arcade development. Game & Watch titles continue to be emulated, with the addition of Mario The Juggler, and the panorama screen Mickey Mouse and Donkey Kong Circus games in this release.
This release brings GameKing emulation to MAME. The system-on-a-chip used in this low-cost, low-resolution hand-held console from the early 2000s has been identified and emulated. Games for the colour-screen GameKing III are also playable. Acorn BBC Micro emulation has been re-worked to support internal expansion boards, and a number of additional peripherals are now available. ZX Spectrum emulation has been enhanced with better open bus read behaviour and support for two Miles Gordon Technology peripherals.
Of course, these are just the highlights. You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.217

MAME 0.217

What better way to celebrate Christmas than with a new MAME release? That’s right – MAME 0.217 is scheduled for release today. Just a reminder, this will be the last MAME release that we distribute a pre-built 32-bit Windows binary package for. Compiling for 32-bit targets will still be supported, but you’ll have to build MAME releases yourself starting from next month. This will also be the last release with source code distributed in the “zip in zip” archive format. We recommend getting source code by cloning a tagged revision from one of our version control mirrors (GitHub, GitLab or SourceForge), or you can use the P7ZIP tools to extract the self-extracting 7-Zip source archive. For MAME 0.217, we’ve switched the Windows tool chain to GCC 9.2.0, and uploaded an updated tools package (the minimum supported GCC version has not changed).
With all the housekeeping announcements out of the way, we can get to those juicy updates. The most exciting thing this month is the recovery of the Sega Model 1 coprocessor TGP programs for Star Wars Arcade and Wing War, making these games fully playable. We’ve been working on Virtua Fighter as well, and while the graphics are greatly improved, there are still some gameplay issues as of this release. In other arcade emulation news, sasuke has been busy fixing long-standing graphical issues in Nichibutsu games, and AJR has made some nice improvements to the early SNK 6502-based games.
On the home system side, there are some nice Sam Coupé improvements from TwistedTom, support for Apple II paddle controllers, a better Apple II colour palette, and significant improvements to Acorn RiscPC emulation. TV game emulation is progressing steadily, with two Lexibook systems, the Jungle Soft Zone 40, and the MiWi 16-in-1 now working.
For front-end developers, we’ve added data to the XML list format allowing you to handle software lists enabled by slot card devices (there are a few of these for Acorn and Sinclair home computers). The minimaws sample script has been updated to demonstrate a number of tasks related to handling software lists. For MAME contributors, we’ve made save state registration a bit simpler, and more manageable in the debugger.
You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.217

MAME 0.217

What better way to celebrate Christmas than with a new MAME release? That’s right – MAME 0.217 is scheduled for release today. Just a reminder, this will be the last MAME release that we distribute a pre-built 32-bit Windows binary package for. Compiling for 32-bit targets will still be supported, but you’ll have to build MAME releases yourself starting from next month. This will also be the last release with source code distributed in the “zip in zip” archive format. We recommend getting source code by cloning a tagged revision from one of our version control mirrors (GitHub, GitLab or SourceForge), or you can use the P7ZIP tools to extract the self-extracting 7-Zip source archive. For MAME 0.217, we’ve switched the Windows tool chain to GCC 9.2.0, and uploaded an updated tools package (the minimum supported GCC version has not changed).
With all the housekeeping announcements out of the way, we can get to those juicy updates. The most exciting thing this month is the recovery of the Sega Model 1 coprocessor TGP programs for Star Wars Arcade and Wing War, making these games fully playable. We’ve been working on Virtua Fighter as well, and while the graphics are greatly improved, there are still some gameplay issues as of this release. In other arcade emulation news, sasuke has been busy fixing long-standing graphical issues in Nichibutsu games, and AJR has made some nice improvements to the early SNK 6502-based games.
On the home system side, there are some nice Sam Coupé improvements from TwistedTom, support for Apple II paddle controllers, a better Apple II colour palette, and significant improvements to Acorn RiscPC emulation. TV game emulation is progressing steadily, with two Lexibook systems, the Jungle Soft Zone 40, and the MiWi 16-in-1 now working.
For front-end developers, we’ve added data to the XML list format allowing you to handle software lists enabled by slot card devices (there are a few of these for Acorn and Sinclair home computers). The minimaws sample script has been updated to demonstrate a number of tasks related to handling software lists. For MAME contributors, we’ve made save state registration a bit simpler, and more manageable in the debugger.
You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

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